/ / 写作

写作 is a very complex process because 您r brain must tend to many different things at 上 ce: 您 must 对于m 您r idea, put it into words, think about how to spell those words, 考虑 什么 to capitalize 和 how to punctuate, remember how to 对于m letters (or find 的m 上 a keyboard). In addition, while 您’re writing 上 e sentence, 您r mind is likely racing ahead to 什么 您’ll say in 的 下一页 句子!

One way to make writing easier is to break 的 process into parts so that 您 can focus 上 each step individually. At any time, even when 您’re trying to decide 什么 您’ll write about, 您 might find it helpful to talk about 您r ideas with someone else.

  1. Clarify 你的写作 task. Choose a topic that is specific enough that 您 can deal with it thoroughly in 的 space 和 time available to 您. Be sure 您 know whom 您’重新写,为什么。唐’t think of 您r 听众 merely as 您r teacher. It would be good if 你的写作 would be read 通过 others–classmates, perhaps, or readers of a newspaper. Even if 您r parent or teacher is 的 main person who’ll see 您r work, imagine that 您’为特定的,也许更广泛的受众写作–your peers, 您nger students, a famous author, a relative. Also have 的 目的 of 你的写作 clearly in mind. What 做 您 want 你的写作 to accomplish? What response 做 您 want from 您r readers?
  2. Once 您’ve determined 您r 听众 和 目的, spend some time jotting 做wn ideas 和 规划 你的写作–whether 您’重新编写故事,诗歌,报告,论文或其他内容。您将如何实现目标?您的想法可能以大纲或网络的形式出现,或者可能只是随机散布在页面上。重要的是将它们记录在某个地方,以便您不要’不必担心忘记它们。这样您就可以腾出时间写作,写下您可能想包括的所有内容。您希望尽可能全面地开发狭窄的主题。例如,如果您试图说服某人做某事,那么您’d want to use 的 最好 arguments or those that address various aspects of 的 subject, not just 的 first 上 es that occur to 您.

    当您与其他人谈论您的生活时’我会写,尝试选择谁’提出问题并鼓励您谈论自己的话题。您的参会人员’无需成为您主题的专家。其实,’熟悉您的主题可能会更好地帮助您找到清晰地解释它的方法。当您谈论自己的话题时,’我会用你的话’ll later use in 你的写作. Talking provides an excellent rehearsal 对于 writing.

  3. Once 您’ve gathered 您r ideas 和 put 的m in order, write 您r 第一稿 尽快。唐’t worry about wording, 拼写, or other mechanics. Record 您r ideas 上 paper, 上 a computer disk, or even 上 magnetic tape. If 您’在电脑上工作 save 您r work often 和 create 上 e or more backup files 上 different disks. If 您’re writing 通过 hand, write 上 上 ly 上 e side of 您r paper。如果您以后决定重组自己的作品,’能够一次看到整个事情。如果需要,甚至可以剪切和粘贴。显然’s impossible if 您’在正面和背面都写过。跳过行还可以简化修订。重要的是记录您的想法。如果您进行了周密的计划,您可能会发现编写初稿仅是为计划中的每个要点写几句话。但是,如果遇到麻烦,请记住不要’无需按顺序写出作品。通常,简介是最难编写的部分之一。如果你’停留在介绍上,跳到您的任何部分 feel ready to write. After 您’ve written parts of 您r composition–or   even all of it–the introduction might be easier 对于 您 to write.
  4. Once 您 have 您r ideas 做wn, begin 抛光。首先考虑 什么 您’re saying. Have 您 made 您r message clear? Have 您 adequately supported 您r ideas? Have 您 created vivid pictures that will bring 您r ideas to life? Is everything directed toward 您r 目的? Will 您r beginning get 您r readers’ attention? Will 您r ending leave 的m with 的 thoughts 和 feelings 您 want 的m to have? Read 您r composition aloud, checking 对于 smooth 句子.
  5. Although 您 may have been 赋予 在整个写作过程中与其他人一起’s especially important to get feedback when 您 您rself are satisfied with 您r composition. Read 你的写作 aloud, asking 您r listener to focus 上 的 内容 或消息。有你的听众“tell back”他或她听到的。这样一来,您就可以知道自己的作品是如何传递给其他人的。询问您的听众哪些内容在您的写作中效果最佳,并提出改进建议。这种回应将不仅仅是说您的写作很棒,如果您的听众不愿提供具体反馈,请提出问题。如果你’如果不确定某个特定部分,请致电给听众’的注意。不限成员名额的问题,而不是是不是的问题,将提供更多信息。例如,答案是“本部分对您意味着什么?”比答案更有用“Was this part clear?”该部分对于您的听众来说可能是很清楚的,但是收到的消息可能与您想要的消息完全不同。您对听众的态度’的评论对您收到的反馈有很大的影响。如果您在提出建议时就变得防御起来,则您的参会者可能会停止提供反馈。但是,如果您证明自己对此反馈表示赞赏,’我可能会得到更多。
  6. 当然啦’s 您r composition; 您 have 的 final say about which changes will be made 和 which things will remain as 他们 are. However, 您 should at least 考虑 建议. Although 您r ideas may be perfectly clear to 您, 他们 might not be clear to 您r reader. People with whom 您 confer let 您 know how effectively 您r ideas come across from 您r paper。他们的帮助是无价的。
  7. Once 您’re again satisfied with 的 内容 of 你的写作, 您’re ready to begin 编辑, focusing 上 的 mechanics. 您 might have 做ne some of this in 您r earlier 抛光, but now 您’重新编辑。再来一次’s helpful to focus 上 上 ly 上 e task at a time. Becoming familiar with 您r own strengths 和 weaknesses will help 您 know which 编辑 tasks require more focused attention.When 您’re 编辑, 您 need to be careful to read 什么’s 上 的 page, not 什么 您 意向的 to put 上 的 page. Reading aloud slowly 和 pointing to 上 e word at a time can help 您 with this.
    • First 考虑 whether all of 您r 句子 完成。
    • Then see 不管你 have started new 段落 in appropriate places. 您 should start a new paragraph when 您 move 上 to a new topic or major segment of 您r composition. If 您’re writing conversation, 您 need to start a new paragraph whenever 您 change speakers.
    • Third, see if 您 have proper 用法 (主语-动词一致,动词的正确形式,正确代词等)。
    • Next check to see if 您r 大写 is correct. (If this is especially difficult 对于 您, 您 might want to go through 您r composition 上 ce checking just 对于 大写 at 的 beginning of a sentence; 的n go through a second time checking 对于 words that should be capitalized within 句子.)
    • 五,检查 标点. 您 might want to subdivide this step also.
    • 最后检查一下 拼写。它’s fine to use 的 feature 上 您r word processing program that checks 拼写, but 做n’t let that be 您r 上 ly check. That will tell 您 上 ly if 您r words are words; it won’t tell 您 if 他们’re 的 话。尤其要注意同音词(那里, 例如)。您还应该检查印刷错误,例如 他们 对于 .

    As long as 您’re making changes, 您 should continue proofreading. Changing 上 e thing, such as from singular to plural, might necessitate other changes. When 您’ve read 您r composition a couple of times without making any changes, 您’即将结束编辑过程。

    Consider having a skilled proofreader (a peer, sibling, or parent) read especially important papers, letters, 和 applications. 您r teacher will let 您 know 不管你 should follow this procedure with daily assignments.

  8. 您’re now ready to make 什么 您 hope will be 您r 最终副本. If 您’re handwriting 您r composition, 您’ll need to repeat 的 proofreading described in Step 7. Using a word processor simplifies correction of errors. Be sure to save 您r work frequently 和 to make 上 e or more backup disks.
  9. 分享 您r ideas–via 你的写作–with a broader 听众. Read 您r work aloud, send it in a letter, or submit it 对于 publication. Enjoy 您r readers’ responses!
以应该走的方式训练孩子,当他长大时,他不会离开。 -箴言22:6